Thursday, March 12, 2015

my new book is just released- 'FengShui Nityajeevithathil' FengShui in daily life

DC Books-Online BookStore

I am very happy to inform you that my 3rd book is
just published from DC Books, Kottayam.
The book details shall be viewed from DC Books website
clicking the following link.

I request you to kindly purchase a copy of this book and support
me. Online purchase shall attract extra courier charges. You can buy from DC
Book Stores at a discounted price of Rs.99/- (after 10% discount for a limited
Hope you shall buy the book, read and send me your comments.
It shall help in improving the quality of the next book.

Thank you very much for your patronage!!

Monday, February 16, 2015

Malayalam new Book : Feng Shui Nityajeevithathil

This book is my 3rd book and the 2nd book published by DC Books, Kottayam. This book contains all necessary information to a common man, how to setup things in and around him based on FengShui - the great Chines Vaastu. The tips given in this book can be practiced on your daily life with little care and observation towards the affects and results. based on this book, the author has put his maximum efforts to compile all the ordinary FengShui artifacts and how to use them to activate the luck and fortune! Your personal directions based on your Kua Number is very important. The basic philosophy of the art and science of placements is also analysed to give the reader till what extend these metaphysical sciences may help in boosting the LUCK factor!

Sample Page

Sample Page

Sunday, November 28, 2010


Poka-yoke is a technique for avoiding simple human error in the workplace. Also known as mistake-proofing, goof-proofing, and fail-safe work methods, poka-yoke is simply a system designed to prevent inadvertent errors made by workers performing a process. The idea is to take over repetitive tasks that rely on memory or vigilance and guard against any lapses in focus. Poka-yoke can be seen as one of the three common components of Zero Defect Quality Control performed by Japanese companies (source inspection and feedback are the other two).

Dr. Shigeo Shingo, a renowned authority on quality control and efficiency, originally developed the mistake-proofing idea. Realizing its value as an effective quality control technique, he formalized its use in Japanese manufacturing as the poka-yoke system. One hundred percent inspections catch unacceptable products but do nothing to improve the process. Shingo was emphatic that the purpose of this system be to improve the process not sort out defective parts.

Today, this concept is in wide use in Japan. Toyota Motor Corporation, whose production system Shingo helped design, averages twelve poka-yoke devices per machine in their manufacturing plants, thus validating the concept as beneficial to industry. Patel, Dale, and Shaw, in the article "Set-Up Time Reduction and Mistake Proofing Methods: An Examination in Precision" list the potential benefits as:

  • elimination of set-up errors and improved quality
  • decreased set-up times with associated reduction in production time and improved production capacity
  • simplified and improved housekeeping
  • increased safety
  • lower costs
  • lower skill requirements
  • increased production flexibility
  • improved operator attitudes.

In a Quality magazine article, Melissa Larson provides interesting details about benefits resulting from the implementation of poka-yoke systems at the Supply Support Activity (SSA) at Fort Carson, Colorado, a military retail supply operation of the U.S. Army.

Inventory, receipt, and batch processing all improved quantifiably. Location survey accuracy was approximately sixty-five percent prior to implementation. After implementing the use of the bar-code readers location accuracy increased to ninety-eight percent. Inventory adjustments averaged $3000 a month. Inventory adjustments dropped to an average of $250 per month.

The rate of incorrect receipt closures to the supplier had been ninety percent. This rate dropped to zero percent. Batch processing was also significantly improved. Traditionally, the SSA had approximately fifteen to twenty batch processing failures per month, and a myriad of system file failures due to operators performing the process out of proper sequence. Since the poka-yoke implementations, there have been zero batch process failures.

Catalog update improvements also resulted. The error rate was twenty-two percent but dropped to zero percent. Original request processing time was 12.5 days, but with the new request processing time is 1.6 days. Actual dollars invested in these activities totaled less than $1000.


Poka-yoke is based on prediction and detection. That is, recognizing that a defect is about to occur or recognizing that a defect has occurred. Consequently, there are two basic types of poka-yoke systems. The control poka-yoke does not allow a process to begin or continue after an error has occurred. It takes the response to a specific type of error out of the hands of the operator. For example, a fixture on a machine may be equipped with a sensing device that will not allow the process to continue unless the part is properly inserted. A 3.5-inch floppy disk will not work if inserted backwards or upside down. As a matter of fact, it won't fit into the drive at all unless properly inserted. A second type of poka-yoke provides some type of warning when an error occurs. This does not prevent the error, but immediately stops the process when an error is detected. This type of poka-yoke is useful for mass production environments with rapid processing as the device prevents mass production of scrapped material. For environments where large losses of time or resources do not result, a warning poka-yoke is warranted. All that is needed is a way to ensure that the error is investigated and corrected in a timely manner.

Poka-yokes can be as simple as a steel pin on a fixture that keeps incorrectly placed parts from fitting properly, or they can be as complex as a fuzzy logic neural network used to automatically detect tool breakage and immediately stop the machine. Surprisingly, the simple low-cost devices tend to be in the majority. Regardless of degree of simplicity, all poka-yokes fall into one of three categories: contact methods, fixed-value methods, and motion-step methods. Each is briefly discussed.


Contact methods are based on some type of sensing device which detects abnormalities in the product's shape or dimension and responds accordingly. Interference pins, notches with matching locator pins, limit switches and proximity switches are sometimes used to ensure that a part is positioned correctly before work occurs. Asymmetric parts with matching work fixtures can also alleviate incorrect positioning. If orientation is not critical, symmetrical designs can then be used to prevent defects.

Contact methods are useful in situations which encourage mistakes. Such situations involve rapid repetition, infrequent production, or environmental problems such as poor lighting, high or low heat, excess humidity, dust, noise, or anything which distracts a worker. Paul Dvorak, in "Poka-Yoke Designs Make Assemblies Mistakeproof," an article appearing in Machine Design, recommends that the maintenance engineer investigate at least four areas for potential problems that require contact method solutions:

  1. Look for where the product will fail if parts are assembled incorrectly.
  2. Look for small features critical to proper assembly.
  3. Beware of relying on subtle differences to determine top from bottom or front from back, especially if the parts are painted dark colors.
  4. Beware of designs so complicated that they confuse inexperienced operators.


Fixed-value methods are used in processes where the same activity is repeated several times, such as tightening of bolts. This method frequently involves very simple techniques, such as methods that allow operators to easily track how often this activity has been performed. Dvorak gives the example of an operator who is responsible for tightening down six bolts on a product. Before passing the product on, the tightening process is performed a fixed number of times (six). A simple poka-yoke device would incorporate the use of a wrench dipped in diluted paint. Since untightened bolts will not have paint on them, the operator can easily see if he or she has performed the process the required number of times. A second example (from Dvorak) would be the use of packaged material in the exact (fixed) quantities needed to complete the process. If the bolts were stored in containers of six, the operator could easily see when the process was still incomplete as the box would still contain one or more bolts.


The motion-step method is useful for processes requiring several different activities performed in sequence by a single operator. This is similar to the fixed-value situation in that the operator is responsible for multiple activities but instead of performing the same activity multiple times the operator performs different activities. First, each step in the

Table 1 Examples of Poka-Yokes
Table 1
Examples of Poka-Yokes

Contact Type Warning Type
Contact Method A steel pin on a fixture keeps incorrectly placed parts from fitting properly. A device on a drill counts the number of holes drilled in a work piece; a buzzer sounds if the work piece is removed before the correct number of holes have been drilled.
Fixed-value Type Light sensors determine if each crayon is present in each box; if a crayon is missing, the machines will stop automatically. Bolts are tightened with a wrench dipped in paint. Bolts with no paint on them are still untightened.
Motion-Step Method A simple proximity switch opens after all components are loaded in the proper order. A device detects when each component is removed from a dispenser; if a component is not removed, the device alerts the assembler before he can move on to another unit.

process is identified by the specific motions needed to complete it. Then devices are created to detect whether each motion is performed and then alert the operator when a step is skipped. An assembly process could utilize a device that senses when all required components are present at the start of the process for each unit. The devices could then detect when each component is removed from its dispenser, If a component is not removed, the sensing device alerts the assembler before he/she can move on to another unit.


Poka-yoke devices which provide the fastest possible feedback about defects and allow workers to assess the quality of their own work are referred to as self-checks. Self-checks can be used to allow workers to rapidly identify slips or work errors such as incomplete or omitted operations and to verify the existence or absence of an attribute. For example, at Brigham and Women's Hospital, a computer system is used to check and process doctors' prescriptions.


A number of "real world" applications are presented in the business and engineering literature. Below are a list of examples of poka-yoke applications. James R. Evans and William M. Lindsay present these examples in their book The Management and Control of Quality:

  • Color-coding a wiring template to assist the worker.
  • Installing a device on a drill to count the number of holes drilled in a work piece; a buzzer sounds if the work piece is removed before the correct number of holes has been drilled.
  • Cassette covers were frequently scratched when the screwdriver slipped out of the screw slot and slid against the plastic covers. The screw design was changed as shown in Table 1 to prevent the screwdriver from slipping.
  • A metal roller is used to laminate two surfaces bonded with hot melted glue. The glue tended to stick to the roller and cause defects in the laminate surface. An investigation showed that if the roller were dampened the glue would not stick. A secondary roller was added to dampen the steel roller during the process, preventing the glue from sticking.
  • One production step at Motorola involves putting alphabetic characters on a keyboard, then checking to make sure each key is placed correctly. A group of workers designed a clear template with the letters positioned slightly off center. By holding the template over the keyboard, assemblers can quickly spot mistakes.

John Grout presented these examples in "Mistake-Proofing Production," an article written for Production and Inventory Management Journal:

  • Trinity Industries Railcar Division workers created a layout jig to avoid having to use a tape measure and chalk to position subassemblies on each car individually. The jig has tops that allow it to be quickly positioned correctly on the car's chassis. Each component that is to be attached to the car has a corresponding cutout on the jig. The jig eliminates two modes of worker error. It eliminates incorrect measurements and inaccurate positioning of parts. It also eliminates the worker vigilance required to ensure all of the components are attached. Omitted parts are made very obvious because an empty space exists on the layout jig. Without the jig, there would be no indication that anything is missing. Once parts are spot welded in place the jig is lifted off and welding is completed. Not only is dependence on worker vigilance reduced, cost savings result from the simplified, accelerated process.
  • Binney and Smith, maker of Crayola Crayons, uses light sensors to determine if each crayon is present in each box of crayons they produce. If a crayon is missing, the machines will stop automatically. Producing complete boxes of crayons right the first time is the preferred outcome.
  • A mail-order computer company has designed its boxes and packing material to avoid mistakes. The inner flaps of the box bottom have a large brightly colored warning to "Stop! Open the other side." When the correct side is opened, a book titled "Setting Up Your Computer" is on top of the packing material. The sequence of the book matches the arrangement of the contents of the box. Each instruction involves the next item from the box.
  • Airplane lavatory lights come on only when the door lock is engaged. This keeps customers from failing to lock the door.
  • John Deere produced a gearbox that was assembled without oil, mounted on a machine, and required replacement after factor tests. A team streamlined production with a simple proximity switch that opens after all components were loaded into an assembly fixture. The switch prevents workers from using air wrenches to tighten bolts on the assembly until they cycle an oil gun into the gearbox. After filling the gearbox a solenoid releases the interlock sending air to the wrench. Then workers can tighten cover bolts and send the box to the next station.
  • The electrical connectors in one machine control formerly used only three-pin connectors to join each in a series. Labels instructed assemblers which boards went where and which connectors should be joined. But in the field, assemblers connecting and disconnecting them wear or bend the pins, which meant putting on a new plug. Soon the label was gone. The simple solution involved three, four and five-pin connectors that cannot join others and demand a single assembly sequence.
  • Ficarra's solution to labels that come off is to machine them into parts, especially when the function is to determine the correct orientation.
  • On Varian machines, assemblers are guided by small machined-in pictures that cannot wear off.


Poka-yoke can also be applied to service-based organizations. The following is summarized from the paper "Using Poka-Yoke Concepts to Improve a Military Retail Supply System," which was printed in Production and Inventory Management Journal.

While manufacturing typically only considers errors made by the producer, service industries must consider errors from both the server and the customer. Additionally, service organizations interface in many different ways to transfer a service to the customer. Because of the possibility that service errors can be created by both the customer and the server, service poka-yokes are grouped into two categories: fail-safing the server and fail-safing the customer.


There are three types poka-yoke systems that can be used to fail-safe the server: task poka-yokes, treatment poka-yokes, and tangible poka-yokes.


Task poka-yokes focus on server tasks and common mistakes servers make while performing the service/task for the customer. A good example of a control-oriented, task poka-yoke is the coin return machine used in may fast-food restaurants. The coin portion of a customer's change from payment is returned automatically through these machines. This takes the control out of the hands of the cash register operator, eliminating errors and speeding up the processing of customers.


Treatment poka-yokes focus on the social interaction between the customer and the server (i.e., eye contact, greeting). By mistake-proofing/standardizing what servers say and do to customers, managers can reasonably ensure that customers receive proper, fair and consistent treatment. Burger King utilized warning-oriented, treatment poka-yokes by placing "cue cards" at the service point ensuring that servers know what to say the minute they interface with the customer.


Tangible poka-yokes attempt to improve the tangible, physical impression and experience for the customer in addition to the direct task of the server (i.e., dirty office, unkempt server, sloppy documents). Motorola uses a control-oriented poka-yoke in the legal department by having a second lawyer inspect all legal work for spelling, presentation, and arithmetic. In this way, the legal department is ensuring that the "tangibles" of the service are satisfactory in addition to the task of the service (legal work).


Fail-safeing the customer also consists of three of poka-yoke systems: preparation poka-yokes, encounter poka-yokes, and resolution poka-yokes.


Preparation poka-yokes attempt to fully prepare the customer before they even enter the service. An example of a warning-oriented, preparation poka-yoke is the notice a university sends to each student prior to registration for the next semester detailing the courses he needs to finish his degree. This system could be converted to a control system by having an automated registration process which would not allow students to sign up for classes out of sequence or until all prerequisites are met.


Encounter poka-yokes attempt to fail-safe a customer at a service who may misunderstand, ignore, or forget the nature of the service or their role in it. A good example of a control-oriented, encounter poka-yoke is the use of concrete curbing at an oil& lube shop that directs customers so that they do not/cannot pull the wrong way into the station. This system also assists in the selection process so that customers are not served out of order.


Resolution poka-yokes attempt to remind customers of the value of their input to the continuous improvement of a service. A hotel which uses an automated check-out system through the television in each room could attach a few questions to the check-out process to ensure the customer provides feedback on key issues. This would be a control-oriented resolution poka-yoke. Obviously, one of the keys to the success of any customer-oriented poka-yoke is to obtain willing customer participation.


Patel, Dale and Shaw note that there are a number of barriers a firm may face when implementing poka-yoke devices within their system. These include:

  • Difficulty in accepting change
  • Justification of the investment
  • Using inappropriate and ineffective methods
  • Time requirements
  • Difficulty encountered as a result of continuous process

Stewart and Grout, in an article entitled "The Human Side of Mistake-Proofing," make the following recommendations for the implementation of poka-yoke devices:

  1. The outcome of the process or routine must be known in advance so as to have a standard for comparison.
  2. The process must be stable, i.e., outcomes are not changing.
  3. There must be an ability to create a break between cause and effect in the process so as to provide an opportunity to insert a poka-yoke.
  4. Environments requiring substantial operator skill are prime locations for poka-yoke devices.
  5. Environments where training or turnover cost is high are prime locations for poka-yoke devices.
  6. Environments with frequent interruptions and distractions are prime locations for poka-yoke devices.
  7. Environments with a consistent set of mixed products are prime locations fopoka-yoke devices.
  8. The beginning of any process where there are multiple other possible processes that could be initiated are a prime location for poka-yoke devices.
  9. Locations in the process with similarly positioned or configured parts, controls or tools are prime locations for poka-yoke devices.
  10. Any point in the process requiring replacement or orientation of parts in order to prevent mispositioning is a prime location for poka-yoke devices.
  11. Any point in the process where adjustments are made for machine or process setups is a prime location for poka-yoke devices.

John Grout attributed defects to three sources: variance, mistakes, and complexity. Complexity requires techniques which simplify the process while managing variance can be accomplished by utilizing statistical process control (SPC). However, if quality problems are the result of mistakes, poka-yoke devices are the appropriate technique to use. In this case, poka-yoke provide an even more effective quality improvement tool than SPC. Other poka-yoke benefits include reduced training costs and the advantage of freeing workers' time and minds for more creative and value-adding activities.

Circumstances where poka-yoke is not the appropriate response are situations involving high speed production, situations where X-bar (Χ̅) & R charts are effective, and use in destructive testing. Other situations, however, provide opportunities for simple, inexpensive, and fail-safe devices to improve performance. Grout relates the example of Lucent Technologies, which reported that half of their 3,300 mistake-proof devices cost less than $100. However, they estimate a net savings of $8.4 million or about $2,545 per device. Poka-yoke is a most impressive and powerful tool.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Entrance Doors

Different types of Entrance doors are available in the market. But a customized door shall be unique and very special. See the differenet types of doors that you can make.

Please take the printout of these doors and handover to your Carpenter or the Interior decorator.

Door type 1

Door Type 2

Door Type 3

Door Type 4

Door Type 5

Door Type 6

Door Type 7

Door Type 8

For More building Designs, please visit
For AutoCAD file of the drawings, you can send email to me

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Finishing of Buildings

Keys to Selecting Finishes
From oil rubbed bronze to brushed nickel, today’s finishes come in a wide variety of styles to complement any décor. Typically, when we make choices for finishes, we’re making selections for faucets, cabinet hardware, doorknobs and lighting. But when faced with making a selection, the endless combinations can seem overwhelming. Both the best and worst part of selecting finishes is that there is no single rule. However some guidelines can help make the decision-making somewhat easier.
To match or not
One of the most difficult decisions is whether or not to match your finishes. Certainly, matching your faucets, lighting, and cabinet hardware is the easiest. It eliminates the guesswork and the difficulty of deciding what and how to coordinate finishes. Sometimes, though, there can be too much of a good thing. Repetition is a wonderful way to create design unity. But, if every finish is exactly the same, it can create a tedious look with little variation or interest. That’s the downside of matching all the finishes.
For those with more daring, it’s possible to put together different finishes and make your room look fabulous. The key is coordination. If you want to mix finishes, it’s important that they coordinate together. For instance, a bronze lighting fixture that has pewter accents will look wonderful with brushed nickel. Or, if you’re handy with a paint brush, add some soft silver or antique brass accents to a bronze lighting fixture. Or, if your fixture has gold accents, consider using a brass fixture or antique brass cabinet hardware. If you’re decorating in a period style, though, it’s better to stick with one style and finish.
Try some contrast
One of the ways to make your finishes really stand out is to go for contrast. Contrast means pairing two very different finishes to create a more exciting look. A black sink faucet would look wonderful with brushed nickel cabinet pulls or antique brass. Or, pair metals such as brass and copper or polished stainless with burnished brass. Using contrast creates depth and interest and keeps the room from feeling flat and uninspired. It also keeps the room from having an out of the box kind of look.
Brass is back
Yes, that golden standby is back in home fashion again. However, if you have a rustic brown light fixture with gold accents, try adding burnished or antique brass hardware. It’s a fresh look and it will make those gold accents on your lighting pop and look even more wonderful. These kinds of coordinated finishes really look terrific in a traditional, Mediterranean or Tuscan style home. Polished brass hasn’t made the comeback that its antique brass cousin has. But that doesn’t mean shiny is out. Shiny faucets and hardware are often found in upscale hotel rooms that feature spa-type baths. The shiny hardware has a high-end appeal that oozes with that luxury spa feeling. has a terrific selection of good-looking polished fixtures.
Hardware rules
Don’t be afraid to mix and match finishes, just make sure they’re coordinated and complementary with one another. Do try to match the styles within a room and, perhaps most importantly, coordinate styles of hardware, lighting and faucets with the style of the home. This is always a winning combination and is complementary to the house and that makes the finish selections look better too. Just for interest, use a hardware set for the front door that is contrasting. This makes a statement that the front door is special. When you’re ready to make decisions about your hardware finishes, be sure to place all the items together at one time. This will help you to be certain that everything looks right and like it belongs together. Besides saving time, it will save you money, too.

Swimming Pools and Fengshui Tips

Swimming pools are wonderful additions to any home. They create an instant place for fun, relaxation, and exercise. Plus, water is extremely beneficial in any landscape. However, in Feng Shui, swimming pools can often create negative influence. That is because swimming pools possess a great deal of energy and we should be very careful in planing the same. Swimming pools are often located at the rear of the home, and that is extremely inauspicious according to Feng Shui.

Even so, there are some instances when pools are a benefit to the homeowner. This would include a pool that is correctly sized, shaped, and positioned to create a positive energy. In Feng Shui, certain pool shapes and sizes can create problems, such as poison arrows, which are harsh points of energy directed at the house.

On the plus side, pools positioned in certain locations can actually benefit homeowners. These are pools that are placed according to flying star Feng Shui. At their best, pools can be positioned to tap the "wealth star" -- the secret location of prosperity that is tied to the direction of the front door. Another benefit of flying star placement is to overcome negative energies, as pools can offset negative energy from poor star placements.

Look at placing your pool in an auspicious location and follow Feng Shui's design criteria to make sure your pool gives you great Feng Shui! Positioned right, swimming pools can add tremendous wealth luck to a home! If not, though, it can be a very negative influence that can harm your wealth. To be sure about your pool, though, consider checking in with a Feng Shui consultant.

The Top 6 Feng Shui Pool Rules

  • Select a shape that is auspicious

The best shapes for pools are round, oval, kidney, or curving. This is because none of these shapes have any hard edges or points that can create a poison arrow effect that square-shaped pools often do. Other good choices include octagons and figure-eights.

  • Keep your pool size proportional to the size of the home

Pools are better if they are not overly large. If they are too large for the home, they can "overwhelm" it, imparting much negative energy. Better to go with a smaller pool than one that is too large.

  • Place pools at the sides of the yard

If possible, it is better to position swimming pools at the side of a yard rather than directly in the rear. If that can't be accommodated, then do try to avoid having a pool that is directly in line with the rear center of the house. Pools that do can become menacing, as water behind you is considered bad feng shui. Generally North and South East are considered to be good.

  • Pools that embrace a home bring good luck

These pools appear to wrap around a home or curve toward the home. These are a good design choice as they don't have hard edges pointing at the house.

  • Locate pools in a favorable sector for feng shui periods 8 and 9

Until 2043, pools should ideally be located in the North, Southwest, East, or Southeast sectors.

  • Incorporate the five elements around your pool.

Pools should be mixed with the other elements, such as metal (hand railings, pumps, electrical equipment), wood (plants, arbors, gazebos), earth (rock, cement surroundings or deckings), and fire (red lighting, triangular shaped articles). This helps to ensure that the pool is well-balanced and harmoniously incorporated into the landscape.

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

House Construction - Budgeting and Planning

In this session I would like to discuss on the planning and budgeting for the construction of a home with your limited resources.

House construction: Budgeting and Planning


Budgeting and planning are two important steps towards construction of any building. In commercial constructions, the client or the owner is getting all kind of technical and commercial advices from the expert consultants as paid services. But for own villa (residential house) construction, 90% of the planning and design has to be done by the house owner himself. Otherwise the house would not look like the one, your family members wanted it to be.

The assistance of the consulting engineer shall be limited because he cannot go in deep to your psychological requirements and your financial abilities. You may not succeed in conveying the same to your consultants due to various reasons. So you will never get a final design as you have dreamed!

To avoid this, it is better you should also learn something in designing and budgeting. My website ( will help you to achieve this goal to a certain extend.

In planning, your initial job is to collect available data in house construction industry. From friends and relatives these data should be collected. Also by the use of telephonic conversations and by reading periodicals more ideas shall be gathered. This information shall be recorded for future references. This will help you to make better decisions to get the job done very easily.

Cost of materials and local labour charges should be noticed and this will help you in future to decide how to execute the work. The maximum usage of locally available materials shall help you to bring down the cost. More over as per baubiology specifications, this will help in saving our nature also.

The fund you can mobilize has to be calculated with details. It has to be written down for better clarity. The available amount of Bank loan has to be worked out separately after consulting with one or two Banks. Better and for safer side, consider only 75% of the bank loans or other personal loans for the budgeting purposes.

The next step is some homework and this has to be done along with your family members also. A detailed discussion has to be initiated where the requirements or facilities will be in put against the budget provisions. For this you should have a minimum knowledge of the cost of construction per Square foot or Square metre in your area. The rate of construction cost per square feet or Square Meter area of the type of building you are looking for has to be ascertained for your location. Normally the rate shall vary from Rs.600 to Rs.1200 per sqft. Rs.600/- is applicable for cost effective building construction and it can go upto Rs.1200/- per sqft for a posh style building with marble or vitrified tiles of good quality.

A normal rate of Rs.900/sqft can be considered for your planning purposes. If your budget is 10 Lakhs rupees, you can construct a building of 1111 sqft (1000000/900=1111). Consider all possible options and proceed further.

Kindly remember the following factors which are directly related to the total cost of construction (square feet rate).ie. the following items add cost to the square foot rate.

a) The number of toilets and the location of toilets.

b) The room sizes greater than 12 ft (360 cm). New beams need to be inserted will increase the cost.

c) Staircase rooms will add the cost of construction, if you are not constructing at least two bedrooms in the first floor.

d) Sloping roofs

e) The excess number of big windows, which we will never open for ventilation. As per norms 10% of opening is required for sufficient light and ventilation.

1 Meter = 3.28 Ft
1 SqMetre = 10.76 SqFt